In the north of the New York City district in Manhattan, Harlem is a neighborhood. It is roughly bounded by Frederick Douglass Boulevard, St. Nicholas Avenue, and Morningside Park on the west; Harlem River and 155th Street on the north; Fifth Avenue on the east; and Central Park North on the south. The Greater Harlem area encompasses a number of other neighborhoods and extends west to the Hudson River, north to 155th Street, east to the East River, and south to Martin Luther King , Jr Boulevard, Central Park and East 96th Street.
It was originally a Dutch village, founded formally in 1658, and was named after the Dutch city of Haarlem. Harlem has defined its history through a series of booming and busting cycles, accompanying significant population shifts every cycle. During the 19th century Harlem was mainly populated by Jews and Italians, but in the 20th century, significant numbers of Afro-Americans were arriving during the Great Migration.
The center of the Harlem Renaissance, a major African American cultural movement, was in the 1920s and 1930s central and west Harlem. Crime and poverty rates rose substantially as the job losses were in the Great Depression in the 1930s and the deindustrialization of New York City after the Second World War. In the 21st century, the crime rates fell substantially and Harlem began to mellow.
Harlem River splits the Bronx into the two districts of New York City, causing multiple gaps into them. Harley and the Bronx have five free bridges: Willis Avenue Bridge, Third Avenue Bridge, (south), Madison Avenue Bridge, 145th Street Bridge and Macombs Dam Bridge. Four free bridges are connected to Harlé and the Bronx. In eastern Harlem Manhattan links Manhattan with the Isle of Wards, also known as 103rd Street Footbridge. The Triborough Bridge consists of three separate bridges, which connect Queens, East Harlem and the Bronx.
One of the major attractions in this neighborhood is the Abyssinian Baptist Church. In 1808, a group of men and women founded the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Lower Manhattan who refused to accept separate seats in New York City’s First Baptist Church.
Another attraction is the Hamilton Grange National Memorial. Father Alexander Hamilton ‘s founding arrived in New York at the age of 17, at King’s College (now Columbia University) and then commissioned John McComb Jr. to build a country house in Upper Manhattan on 32 acres. Two years before Hamilton ‘s death, the home was completed in 1802 and named The Grange after the estate of Hamilton ‘s grandfather in Scotland.